Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into DC (direct current) electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. Today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC electricity to AC electricity. There is also a market for off-grid power for remote houses, rural solar pumping, isolated sites, remote telecom sites telephones, etc.
Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years.